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Saturday, March 17, 2018

Tomate – Tomato. France’s Greatest Tomato, the Tomate de Marmande AOC. The Tomato in French Cuisine.

Behind the French Menu
Bryan G. Newman

Choose your tomato.

The tomato’s origins are South American and they were brought to Europe by returning Conquistadors but probably not until fifty years after Columbus. Then, for the next one hundred and fifty years, tomatoes were considered a decorative plant with their fruit treated as poisonous. (Poisonous tomatoes resurfaced when I went to school, and they were served burnt and dried at school lunches).  Then in the 1700s, there were famines all over Europe and a consequent search for a broader range of foods less susceptible to pests and disease.  
The Killiney Obelisk [1740-1741] Famine Memorial.
This Irish famine was proportionately more devastating
than the great potato famine of 1845-1852
This was the time that Parmentier brought the potato into French homes and other New World imports like maize were taking over the French countryside. The surge in experimentation with vegetables, legumes, and grains also saw tomatoes reaching the markets.  Then fast forward to the 1890s when the growers around the town of Marmande began the work that nearly one hundred years later would produce France’s magnificent and ambrosial AOC Marmande tomato. The Marmande tomato is large, flavorsome and aromatic with many weighing over 250 grams (9 ounces).
What Would the World’s Dining Tables Look Like Without the Tomato?

The world’s tables would look and taste very differently without the tomato. Italy would have no pizza Margherita or spaghetti alla Pomodoro, the USA would have no Bloody Mary’s or Campbell’s tomato soup, Spain would have no gazpacho, and around the world, children would be refusing to eat 90% of the dishes put in from of them as there would be no tomato ketchup.
Tomato-free pizza
French cuisine would be in serious trouble with Provencal cuisine having no Ratatouille, and  Basque cuisine having no Piperade.  More importantly for French cuisine, Carême and Escoffier’s rules would be thrown into confusion as there would be no Sauce Tomate. Sauce Tomat, tomato sauce, is one of French cuisine's five "mother" sauces.
However, we do have tomatoes so all is well, and they come in a wide range of shapes and colors from white through golden yellow and on through all the shades of reds and purples so dark that they are nearly black.
Choose by color
The tomato on French Menus:
Carpaccio de Tomates aux Copeaux de Parmesan et Jambon Cru – Replacing the paper-thin raw beef in the Carpaccio are thinly sliced fresh tomatoes flavored with lemon juice, olive oil, herbs, and pepper.  All served with shavings of Parmesan cheese and thinly sliced cured ham. 
Soupe de Tomate Glacée au Basilic – Chilled tomato soup flavored and glazed with basil. 
Sole Duglére  - The chef Adolphe Dugléré’s classic dish of sole poached in the oven with the white wine, tomatoes, and crème fraîche.  
Tomates à la Provençal – Tomatoes prepared in the manner of Provence. Tomato halves covered and or stuffed with breadcrumbs, parsley, garlic, basil and olive oil and baked in the oven.

Marmande and the Tomates de Marmande AOC/AOP
The Marmande tomato.
The town of Marmande is in the department of Lot-et-Garonne in the new super region of Nouvelle Aquitaine. The Marmande tomato is a French tomato and therefore has, of course, a romantic story behind it.  A shy young man Peyrot Bory travels to South America to seek his fortune and there he is given a tomato by Native American Indians. When he returns to France, he presents his chosen Ferline Giraudeau the tomato, and she falls madly in love with him.  In Marmande, they tell you that this story is the source of the tomato’s other French name the Pomme d’Amour, the love apple.  This love apple would then be developed by Pierre Gautriaud, a farmer in Marmande who began growing his tomatoes on canes, where previously they had been left to grow on the ground. With Gautriaud’s work and continued natural selection, the local farmers created the large and tasty fruit that are today’s Marmande Tomato AOP.
A bronze of Ferline Giraudeau with the love apple

Not just in the town of Marmande, but all over France when a chef is using Marmande tomatoes their name will be on the menu. These will be simple recipes where you can clearly taste this unique tomato,

Marmande tomatoes on French Menus:
Crème de Tomates de Marmande – Cream of tomato soup made with Marmande tomatoes.
Jus de Tomate de Marmande –  Marmande tomato juice.
Marmande tomato juice
Tartare de Tomate de Marmande au Magret de Canard Fumé -Tartar of Marmande tomatoes prepared with smoked duck breast.  
Fête de la Tomate, Marmande

The town has a Fête de la Tomate, Marmande, a Marmande tomato festival.  It is an important fete culturally, economically,  and gastronomically and lasts three days beginning on the third Friday in July.  

The fete’s website is in French only but easily understood with the Google and Bing translation apps:

For the Marmande town hall will need to click on one of the apps again as it also has a French only website:
Protecting the Marmande tomato’s good name are the Chevaliers de la Confrérie de la Pomme d'Amour à Marmand, the knights of the brotherhood and sisterhood of the love apple of Marmande.  Do not come into Marmande with boxes of imported tomato juice or these knights will be on your case.
The Knights of the brotherhood and sisterhood of the Love apple of Marmande.
Apart from the popular round and ridged tomatoes similar to the Marmande in the markets, you will see the following labels: 
Tomate-Cerise –  The cherry tomato.  These are small tomatoes, the size of large cherries.
Tomate Grappe – Grape or cluster tomatoes; those are regular round shaped tomatoes that are sold in groups still attached to the vine.
Tomate Oblongue, Allongée or Tomate Italienne  - The oval-shaped Italian cooking tomato.
Tomate Roma or Tomate Olivette – Small oval tomatoes; similar to the size of cherry tomatoes.
Tomate Roma

The Côtes du Marmandais AOC
The grapes for the Côtes du Marmandais AOC are grown around the town.  You may enjoy their red, white, and rosé wines made using many of the same grapes as their neighbors in the department of Garonne where all the Bordeaux wines come from.  Marmande has a two-day wine festival; the Festi Vino held on two days beginning with the last Saturday in July.
Chateau Soubiran, Côtes du Marmandaise

Marmande's Festi Vino French language website is:

Fête des Fleurs et des Saveurs. Marmande
The Fête des Fleurs et des Saveurs. Marmande, the fete of the flowers, scents, and tastes is held on the third Saturday and Sunday in May. There are many excellent fruits and vegetables grown in the area, and May is the middle of their strawberry and flower season.

As may now be expected, this fete also has a French language only website:
If the tomatoes and wines and other celebrations are not enough, all around are chateaus and castles. Just down the road is Agen, some 70 km (44 miles) away, it is a lovely walkable town and hold the gold standard for its prunes,  Bordeaux with its fantastic cuisine and wines is just 80 km (50miles) away.

Connected Posts:
AOP/ AOC, IGP and Vin de France. New Labels on French Wines.

Searching for the meaning of words, names or phrases
French menus?

Just add the word, words, or phrase that you are searching for to the words "Behind the French Menu" and search with Google. Behind the French Menu’s links include hundreds of words, names, and phrases that are seen on French menus. There are over 400 articles that include over 3,000 French dishes with English translations and explanations.
Bryan G. Newman

Behind the French Menu.
Copyright 2010, 2018.

For information on the unpublished book behind this blog contact Bryan Newman

Saturday, March 10, 2018

Volatile – Poultry. The Word Volaille, Poultry, on French Menus Only Includes Chickens and Turkeys. Volaille in French Cuisine.

Behind the French Menu
Bryan G. Newman
Down on the farm.
Volaille in French means poultry, and in a French supermarket, poultry includes chicken, duck, goose, turkey, Guinea fowl, pheasant, pigeon, and quail.  Within that group, the chickens come in an extensive variety of shapes, sizes, and ages; however, a menu listing the word volaille tells the diner that he or she is only being offered chicken and in a few cases turkey, without having to consider all the options. For the chef who writes the menu, he or she is freed from giving details than imply a chicken’s exact age, sex, and how and where it was farmed.
Volaille on French menus:
Bréchets de Volaille Pomme de Terre Sautées et sa Petite Salade – Chicken wishbones, with a small amount of chicken breast attached, these will probably be deep-fried; here they are accompanied by lightly fried potatoes and a small salad.  Wishbones are the thin forked bone between the neck and the breast of a chicken (and other birds).  These bones with a small amount of breast meat attached are a French comfort food, like chicken wings.   These thin bones with a little meat remind many Frenchmen and French women of frogs' legs, and so the dish’s nickname is les grenouilles du pauvre, the frogs’ legs of the poor.

Roast chicken.
Dodine de Poulet, Farce Fine de Volaille - Chicken breast stuffed with chicken liver. A Farce Fine is a poultry stuffing that apart from other additions that a chef may choose always includes chicken liver.
Emincé de Volaille, Sauce Forestière - Thinly sliced or cubed pieces of chicken breast served with a creamy, wild mushroom sauce. The wild mushrooms may be replaced with cultivated button mushrooms so ask. Reconstituted, dried, wild, French porcini mushrooms, cèpes, may also be used and they are better than many fresh and wild but tasteless mushrooms.

Cèpe de Bordeaux - boletus edulis
The French porcini mushroom.
Escalope de Volaille Gratiné à la Savoyarde, Pommes de Terre – Thin slices of chicken or breast prepared like an Escalope Savoyarde, the famed veal escalope dish from the departments of the Savoy. Here chicken breasts will have been cooked in butter, layered with slices of cured ham, surrounded with and then browned with one of Savoie’s cheeses, usually Gruyere Française, Emmental de Savoie or Comte.
Pâté Chaud de Volaille En Croute, Sauce Vigneronne – A hot chicken pate served inside a bread or pastry covering accompanied by a vintner’s sauce. A chicken pate unless otherwise noted will often include pork liver as well as chicken liver.  The sauce is made with red wine, shallots, balsamic vinegar, and the herbs of Provence. The same sauce is called a Sauce Marchand du Vin, a wine merchant’s sauce.

Chicken and Egg Pate en Croute with wild onion marmalade.
Salade de Blanc de Volaille Fumé, Vinaigrette aux Airelles A mixed green salad of smoked turkey breast served with vinaigrette dressing and flavored with cranberries.  Chicken and turkey breast may appear on menus as blanc, supreme, poitrine, filet, and escalope and the abundance of names may confuse visitors, but their use continues as tradition is tradition. Chickens are rarely smoked, and that leads me to assume that turkey is the smoked poultry breast offered in this menu listing.  The cranberries, in season, will be the fresh European cranberry and cranberries, popular with turkey, are another hint that the smoked poultry breast is turkey breast.   The Europeans have been playing catch up with the cultivation of cranberries in the last twenty years. East-European countries are now the largest European cranberry producers with Belarus producing over 8,000 tons per year. Nevertheless, all of Europe’s production does not reach 10% of the amazing Canadian and US annual production which is more than 500,000 tons! Nearly all of the canned and frozen cranberries and cranberry juice in French supermarkets are North American imports.
In thirty different regions of France, there are Volailles Fermières Label Rouge – France’s Label Rouge Poultry. The poultry sold with the red label really do spend most of their lives in the open, and they cost 50% more than the regular chickens, ducks, turkeys and Guinea fowl on sale, but they taste like something. Despite their high prices, 25% of the public is willing to pay the extra.  No other country has such a high percentage of the population willing to pay higher prices for tasty poultry. And, no other country has such a well respected and continually inspected method of control. The various regions have chickens and other poultry that are well-known by their local names. N.B.  Label Rouge poultry may appear on menu listings by just their local name without the suffix Label Rouge which the locals will know. When you see a named chicken or turkey on a menu without a label, ask more about it.

The Label Rouge poultry of Gers.
   Gers is a department in the south-west of France in the new super-region of Occitanie.
Photograph courtesy of Le Boucher Cévenol
Only one class of poultry, the Volaille de Bresse, which includes chickens and turkeys, meet France’s very special requirements for AOC poultry. These are bred in the old French province of Bresse which is included in parts of the new super-regions of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Their blue legged chickens are at least four months old compared with five weeks for the average supermarket chicken, their poulardes, their fattened chickens, are at least five months old while their capons are over eight months old; as they grow, they add flavor.  From the age of five weeks these tasty birds will all spend most of their lives outdoors with a minimum of 10 square meters per bird (compare that with the 8 or ten birds squashed into a single square meter for so-called free range birds).  Apart from what they pick up on the ground 70% of the bird's diets must be locally grown corn, maize, along with wheat and milk. The black feathered Bresse turkey reaches the market after at least seven months, and they are the most sought after turkey for French Christmas dinners. They must be ordered nearly a year in advance. When on the menu don’t let Bresse poultry pass; practically none are exported. Order a label rouge or AOC chicken when in France and taste the difference. (By the way, farm-raised has no legal meaning, in Europe, the UK, and the USA, all chickens are raised in farms. Farm raised may mean raised in cages).

La Poulet de Bresse.
Related Posts:
Searching for the meaning of words, names or phrases
French menus?

Just add the word, words, or phrase that you are searching for to the words "Behind the French Menu" and search with Google. Behind the French Menu’s links include hundreds of words, names, and phrases that are seen on French menus. There are over 400 articles that include over 3,000 French dishes with English translations and explanations.
Bryan G. Newman

Behind the French Menu.
Copyright 2010, 2018.

For information on the unpublished book behind this blog contact Bryan Newman